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Remoteness of Damage


The remoteness of damage is a legal principle used to determine the extent of liability for the consequences of a wrongful act. It involves assessing whether the damages suffered were directly caused by the act and whether they were reasonably foreseeable.

Two tests are commonly used to determine the remoteness of damage: the test of directness and the test of reasonable foresight.

Test of Directness

According to the test of directness, a person is liable for all the direct consequences of their wrongful act, regardless of whether they could foresee the specific outcome. The focus is on the immediate and natural consequences that flow directly from the act itself. Intervening acts that break the chain of causation may affect the directness of the consequences.

Tricky Area: For the consequences to be considered direct, there should be no intervening act that significantly contributes to the damages. If an intervening act breaks the chain of causation, the person may not be held liable for the subsequent consequences.

Test of Reasonable Foresight

The test of reasonable foresight assesses liability based on what could have been reasonably foreseen by a person in the circumstances of the wrongdoer. It looks at the foreseeability of the consequences rather than the directness of the causation. The focus is on what a reasonable person in the wrongdoer’s position would have anticipated as potential outcomes.

Tricky Area: The foreseeability is based on the perspective of a reasonable person, not the actual wrongdoer. It is important to consider what a person with ordinary prudence and judgment would have foreseen in similar circumstances.

Application to the Scenario

In the given scenario, if the facial cream used at Britney’s Skin Research Centre and Beauty Clinic caused a reaction that resulted in blisters on Victoria’s skin, it can be argued that this is a direct consequence of the wrongful act. The liability of the clinic may extend to the damages caused by the immediate reaction.

However, the extent of liability for Victoria’s ruined prom plans and her breakup with Charles may be subject to debate. These consequences may not be considered direct and foreseeable in the context of a facial treatment. The clinic’s liability for such indirect and unforeseeable damages may be limited.


The remoteness of damage is a principle used to determine the extent of liability for the consequences of a wrongful act. The tests of directness and reasonable foresight help assess the scope of liability. Liability is generally limited to direct consequences that flow naturally from the act, while unforeseeable and indirect consequences may not be attributed to the wrongdoer. Determining the extent of liability requires a careful analysis of causation, foreseeability, and the principles of remoteness of damage.

Note: Access complete CLAT Legal Reasoning notes here.

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